Teachers' Guide Book of Compulsory English | Grade 10 (SEE) | Download in PDF

Teacher's Guide
Grade 10

Government of Nepal
Curriculum Development Center
Sanothimi, Bhaktapur

Teachers' Guide Book of Compulsory English Grade 10 (SEE).

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To the Teacher

This teacher's guide (TG) of grade ten English (2017) has been prepared with the aim of helping the teachers to implement the curriculum and the textbook effectively in the classroom. The new English curriculum of grade 10 is based on a communicative approach to language teaching. The communicative approach to language teaching emphasizes the teaching of language functions along with grammatical items and language structures. The thrust of the new curriculum is the development of communicative competence in the students. This means that students should be able to communicate both in spoken and written English, not only by using grammatically correct sentences but also by using the appropriate utterances according to the demands of the situation. The new English curriculum and the textbook of grade 10 are different from the old one. It is therefore, essential to familiarise the teachers with the new concepts that they need to follow while using the textbook developed in the spirit of the new curriculum. Thus, the Curriculum Development Centre has developed this teacher's guide taking into consideration the practical problems that teachers face while facilitating the learners in the classroom. This teacher's guide assists the teachers in three basic ways (1) by providing methodological suggestions to deal with the lessons, (2) by providing answers to the exercises given in the textbook including the models/samples and (3) by suggesting and providing additional resources useful for dealing with the units of the textbook. Although most of the techniques and activities included in this TG are communicative and task-based in nature, the activities do not rely solely on any one particular approach or method. Since the use of methodology depends on the cultural context, the political context, the local institutional context and the context constituted by the teachers and learners in their classrooms, the teachers are suggested to consider those contexts before deciding any method or technique of teaching.


Each unit in this TG is divided into three parts: unit outline, learning facilitation process and additional resources. The first part, unit outline, provides the general overview of the unit such as the things to teach, content theme or topics, expected achievements of the students, soft skills that have been incorporated, teaching resources required for this particular unit and estimated periods allotted to the unit. The second part, learning facilitation process, provides a detailed lesson activities along with answers to the textbook exercises. Likewise, the third part, additional resources, includes various resources for the teachers and learners. The script of the audio for listening skill has been kept at the end of each unit under additional resource section.

Lesson organisation

Each lesson in this TG has five elements: (1) content from the textbook, which provides information about which textbook exercise has been dealt with in that lesson, (2) materials required for this lesson, (3) lesson activities, i.e. the detailed methodological procedure for lesson activities, (4) extended activity and (5) teacher's reflection on the lesson. Extended activity is the task which is not given in the textbook. This activity is optional and can be used if the teachers have time to do. It can be assigned to the more capable students who finish the given tasks earlier. Remember that this activity is not obligatory for the learners. Answers to the textbook exercises have been included at the end of each activity. For the answers which are almost fixed, the phrase "Suggested answers" has been used and for the answers where there is the possibility of more than one answers, the phrase "Possible answers" has been used. In each lesson, activities have been divided into three sections as they are in the textbook: Engage yourself, Study time and Follow-up activity in case of reading and listening and Engage yourself, Time for writing/speaking and Follow-up activity in case of writing and speaking. The main aims of the activities under Engage yourself is to arouse the students' interest in the main task, to motivate them and to provide background for the task or the text. Therefore, the Engage yourself activities should not be lengthy. Most of class time should be spent on the activities under Study time or Time for writing/speaking. Follow-up activities are more like post-reading and post-listening activities in case of reading and listening; they are related to production activities in case of speaking and grammar; and they are mostly related to revising, editing and preparing the final version in case of writing. The periods required for each unit are suggested based on the curriculum. However, there may not be one-to-one correspondence between the periods suggested in the curriculum and the in teacher's guide. The teachers can adjust the periods themselves considering their own context. The fun corner included in the textbook is just for learning and fun. Therefore, it should be conducted in a simple and easy way so that it would not be a burden for the students.

New concepts

Some new concepts have been introduced in the new curriculum like soft skills and competencies. The secondary level English curriculum of grade 9-10 is competency-based and soft skills-integrated.

Soft skills

Soft skills can be defined as intra- and inter-personal socio-emotional skills, essential for personal development, social participation and workplace success. The four macro soft skills include co-operation skills, thinking skills, personal skills and innovation and business skills. There are several micro skills under these macro skills. These skills can be developed in the learners by involving them in meaningful activities like pair work, group work and project work. Project works are very useful for the development of soft skills. Therefore their use must be maximised as far as possible.


A competency is a combination of observable and measurable knowledge, skills, attitude, values and ability or readiness to do something. Competency focuses on the learners' ability to do or perform something in real situation. Knowledge is the cognizance of facts, truths and principles gained from formal training and/or experience. A skill is a developed proficiency in mental operations or physical processes that is often acquired through specialized training. Attitude is a set of emotions, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, person, thing, or event. Attitudes are often the result of experience or upbringing, and they can have a powerful influence over behavior. Value refers to the relative importance that an individual places on an item, idea, person, etc. as a part of their life. These feelings are unique to the individuals. Readiness is a quality of being able or willing to do something. Competencybased curriculum focuses on activity-based learning and learning by doing. Therefore, the students should be made more active in the learning process.

Principles of learning facilitation

The teachers are not simply the consumer of theory developed by the methodologists but they are the creators of their own theories. In the process of applying theories developed by methodologists, the teachers develop their own theories in the classroom teaching context. This teacher's guide is based on the following principles drawn from the second language acquisition theories and the teachers should have them in mind while teaching: 

  • Learners should get ample exposure to the target language.
  • Learners should use the target language as much as possible.
  • Learning environment should be anxiety free.
  • Learners must be encouraged to take risk while learning the language.
  • Errors should be taken as natural outcomes in the learning process.
  • Learners should develop a positive attitude towards the target language.
  • Student talking time (STT) must be maximised in the classroom.
  • Learners should take responsibility of their own learning.
  • Different learners learn in different ways.
  • Learners should be sensitive to their own learning styles.

Things to be considered Flexibility:

In order to ensure the coverage of the textbook exercises, the activities in each lesson have been ordered as per the sequence of the textbook. However, it is not imperative that the lessons be taught in the same sequence. Lesson activities can be organised in a way that is appropriate. Basically, the principles of simple to complex, known to unknown, more common to less common, etc. can be followed to decide the sequence of the lesson activities.

Communicative tasks:

An attempt has been made to make the activities more learner friendly, more communicative, more inductive and more participatory. It is well accepted that learning of a foreign/second language is not possible by memorizing grammar structures. Rather the learners should be provided with ample opportunity to use language for meaningful communication in real-life context. Therefore, involving them in communicative tasks is quite important. Communicative activities like information gap-activities, role play, simulation, dramatization, information gap activities like strip story, language games, picture describing, picture narrating group work and pair work should be used as far as possible.

Meaningful practice:

The role of practice is crucial in learning of a foreign language. Knowing about a language and using a language are different things. Learners may know about a language but they may not be able to use it for communication in the absence of practice. Therefore, the students should be provided with an opportunity to practise language both inside and outside the classroom.

Use of correct language:

The language used by the teacher works as a model for the students. Therefore, the teacher should use the correct language in the classroom. The teacher should keep himself in the position of a learner, and try to discover new features of the target language.

Doing difficult tasks in the classroom:

Since the role of the teacher is to facilitate the learners in the learning process, the tasks which are difficult should be done as the class work with the direct support of the teacher. Likewise, writing practice must be done in the classroom under the direct support and the supervision of the teacher. They should not be left simply as home assignments. Writing techniques such as brain storming, mind maps, spidergram and quick write should be used in the classroom as far as possible. Likewise, the students should be involved in both process and product-based writing activities.

Self pacing:

All the students do not have the same learning ability. Therefore, students should be given chance to learn in their own pace. Likewise, more competent students can be requested to help their friends.

Addressing diversity:

Diverse-learner-composition is a common feature of almost all classes of Nepal. The following strategies can be helpful for addressing diversity in English language classroom:

  • Bringing variety in the content, tasks and activities
  • Maintaining correct learner pacing in the activities
  • Putting the learner's interest at the center of lesson planning
  • Using collaborative activities like pair work and group work
  • Allowing learners' choice in what tasks or materials they use and how
  • Allowing different individual responses, based on learners' own experience, opinions or imagination
  • Using compulsory plus optional strategy in assigning tasks and activities.

Use of the curriculum along with the textbook and TG:

Simultaneous use of the curriculum, the textbook and the teacher's guide is important for effective planning and efficient teaching. Therefore all of these resources should be consulted while planning lessons. Teachers should go over the unit to be taught very carefully.

Use of dictionary:

Dictionary a is very important resource for learning language, especially the vocabulary. Various aspects of the words can be taught by using them. Therefore the v students should be encouraged to use the target language dictionary as far as possible. Likewise, they should be encouraged to use the glossary kept at the back of the textbook. It cannot be claimed that the activities given in this guide are sufficient. There can be several ways of facilitating the learners, and the methodology suggested here is only one of them. An inventive and experienced teachers are always free to use appropriate methodology that is quite suitable to their learners. The methodology included in this guide is simply a suggestion for the teachers, not a prescription. Various online resources and materials have been suggested in this guide. If the recommended online materials are not found to be appropriate, please inform the CDC about it. All valuable suggestions and comments teacher teachers as well as other persons concerned for further improvement of this teacher's guide will be welcomed by the Curriculum Development Centre.

Curriculum Development Centre
Sanothimi, Bhaktapur

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